Designing with Light: Advanced 2D, 3D, and 4D Materials

Kenward Jung, Nathaniel Corrigan, Mustafa Ciftci, Jiangtao Xu, Soyoung E. Seo, Craig J. Hawker, Cyrille Boyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations


Recent achievements and future opportunities for the design of 2D, 3D, and 4D materials using photochemical reactions are summarized. Light is an attractive stimulus for material design due to its outstanding spatiotemporal control, and its ability to mediate rapid polymerization under moderate reaction temperatures. These features have been significantly enhanced by major advances in light generation/manipulation with light-emitting diodes and optical fiber technologies which now allows for a broad range of cost-effective fabrication protocols. This combination is driving the preparation of sophisticated 2D, 3D, and 4D materials at the nano-, micro-, and macrosize scales. Looking ahead, future challenges and opportunities that will significantly impact the field and help shape the future of light as a versatile and tunable design tool are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1903850
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number18
StatePublished - May 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D materials
  • 4D materials
  • functional materials
  • living polymerization
  • photopolymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Designing with Light: Advanced 2D, 3D, and 4D Materials'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this