Delta-sigma (ΔΣ) frequency synthesizers for wireless applications

Bertan Bakkaloglu, Sayfe Kiaei, Bikram Chaudhuri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes the state-of-the-art design approaches to delta-sigma (ΔΣ) frequency synthesizers for wireless transceiver applications. Various synthesizer architectures, including the integer and fractional-N synthesizers, and frequency-to-digital converters (FDC) based digital frequency synthesizers are described. Design specifications for several loop parameters such as noise shaper order in the feedback modulator, loop filter bandwidth, VCO phase noise are based on modulation accuracy and frequency resolution specifications. Advantages of digital loop filter based ΔΣ frequency synthesizers are analyzed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-30
Number of pages12
JournalComputer Standards and Interfaces
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007


  • Frequency synthesizers
  • Frequency-to-digital converters
  • RF transmitters
  • Sigma-delta modulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Law


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