Anomaly detection is one of the most active research areas in various critical domains, such as healthcare, fintech, and public security. However, little attention has been paid to scholarly data, that is, anomaly detection in a citation network. Citation is considered as one of the most crucial metrics to evaluate the impact of scientific research, which may be gamed in multiple ways. Therefore, anomaly detection in citation networks is of significant importance to identify manipulation and inflation of citations. To address this open issue, we propose a novel deep graph learning model, namely graph learning for anomaly detection (GLAD), to identify anomalies in citation networks. GLAD incorporates text semantic mining to network representation learning by adding both node attributes and link attributes via graph neural networks (GNNs). It exploits not only the relevance of citation contents, but also hidden relationships between papers. Within the GLAD framework, we propose an algorithm called Citation PUrpose (CPU) to discover the purpose of citation based on citation context. The performance of GLAD is validated through a simulated anomalous citation dataset. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of GLAD on the anomalous citation detection task.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2543-2557
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • Anomalous citation
  • deep graph learning
  • network representation
  • scholarly network analysis (SNA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Artificial Intelligence


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