De-Facto Science Policy in the Making: How Scientists Shape Science Policy and Why it Matters (or, Why STS and STP Scholars Should Socialize)

Thaddeus R. Miller, Mark W. Neff

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    26 Scopus citations


    Science and technology (S&T) policy studies has explored the relationship between the structure of scientific research and the attainment of desired outcomes. Due to the difficulty of measuring them directly, S&T policy scholars have traditionally equated "outcomes" with several proxies for evaluation, including economic impact, and academic output such as papers published and citations received. More recently, scholars have evaluated science policies through the lens of Public Value Mapping, which assesses scientific programs against societal values. Missing from these approaches is an examination of the social activities within the scientific enterprise that affect research outputs and outcomes. We contend that activities that significantly affect research trajectories take place at the levels of individual researchers and their communities, and that S&T policy scholars must take heed of this activity in their work in order to better inform policy. Based on primary research of two scientific communities-ecologists and sustainability scientists-we demonstrate that research agendas are actively shaped by parochial epistemic and normative concerns of the scientists and their disciplines. S&T policy scholarship that explores how scientists balance these concerns, alongside more formal science policies and incentive structures, will enhance understanding of why certain science policies fail or succeed and how to more effectively link science to beneficial social outcomes.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)295-315
    Number of pages21
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Sep 2013


    • Ecology
    • Science and technology policy
    • Science and technology studies
    • Social outcomes
    • Social processes
    • Sustainability science

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Education
    • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
    • Social Sciences(all)


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