Crystallization Behavior of Liquid CaO-SiO2-FeO-MnO Slag in Relation to Its Reaction with Moisture

Juncheng Li, Debashish Bhattacharjee, Xiaojun Hu, Dianwei Zhang, Seetharaman Sridhar, Zushu Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


To help maintain the sustainability of the steel industry, we are developing a novel process to recover thermal energy (in the form of hydrogen) and valuable metal elements contained in steelmaking slags by reacting molten slags with moisture. The process is dependent on the structure and properties of the slag, of which the crystallization tendency is key, since surface phases affect the slag reactivity with the gas and enable selective formation of solid phases containing transition metals. In this paper, the precipitated phases of the molten synthetic CaO-SiO2-FeO-MnO slags after reacting with moisture were calculated by using thermodynamic package FactSage 7.0. Laboratory experiments were conducted to reveal the crystallization behavior of the targeted metal oxides in the slags with the aim of crystallization control. A hot stage-equipped confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was used to in-situ observe the crystal precipitation on the surface of the liquid slag after reacting with moisture. Time temperature transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were created from the precipitation behavior of crystals during cooling in the temperature range of 1873 K to 1173 K (1600 °C to 900 °C). The microstructures of the reacted slags were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and the phases present in the slag were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). TTT curves of the reacted slags (with moisture) indicated that the nose temperature and critical time for nucleation located at 1473 K (1200 °C) and 89 seconds for the slag with basicity of 1.00. Further increasing the slag basicity to 1.25 and 1.50 increased the nose temperature to 1523 K and 1698 K (1250 °C and 1425 °C), respectively. CCT curves of the reacted slags (with moisture) indicated that the crystallization temperatures of precipitated phases increased with decreasing the cooling rate from 800 to 10 K/min, and the crystallization temperatures of primary phases increased with increasing slag basicity. Both magnetite (Fe3O4) and monoxide ((FeO)x(MnO)1−x) phases were detected by SEM-EDS and XRD in the reacted slags (with moisture). The amount of magnetite in the reacted slags increased from 25 to 32 pct to 36 pct and that of monoxide decreased from 5 to 2 pct to 1 pct with the slag basicity increasing from 1.00 to 1.25 to 1.50.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1931-1948
Number of pages18
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 15 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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