Corrosion of novel reactive silver ink and commercial silver-based metallizations in diluted acetic acid

April M. Jeffries, Tara Nietzold, Laura T. Schelhas, Mariana I. Bertoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Silver-based metallizations in photovoltaic modules are susceptible to corrosion by acetic acid generated in ethylene vinyl acetate encapsulated modules, resulting in power losses over time. Here, three silver-based metallizations are exposed to diluted acetic acid, in concentrations representative of that found in field-exposed modules. Compositional, morphological, and structural changes of the metallizations are studied over 3000 h of exposure to diluted acetic acid using Raman spectroscopy mapping, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The three metallizations studied are: 1) a commercial high-temperature fire-through Ag paste, commonly used for Si diffused junction solar cells; 2) a commercial low-temperature paste normally used for silicon heterojunction cells; and 3) a novel low-temperature reactive silver ink shown to be suitable for photovoltaic applications. We find distinct corrosion rates for the high-temperature silver paste and reactive silver ink in the presence of diluted acetic acid. On the other hand, the low-temperature silver paste appears to be more corrosion resistant, likely due to a polymer layer that protects the silver particles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110900
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Cell degradation
  • Corrosion pathways
  • Metallization
  • Silver reactive inks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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