Correlation of Etch Pits and Dislocations in As-grown and Thermal Cycle-Annealed HgCdTe(211) Films

M. Vaghayenegar, R. N. Jacobs, J. D. Benson, A. J. Stoltz, L. A. Almeida, David Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This paper reports observations of the different types of etch pits and dislocations present in thick HgCdTe (211) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CdTe/Si (211) composite substrates. Dislocation analysis for as-grown and thermal cycle-annealed samples has been carried out using bright-field transmission electron microscopy. Triangular pits present in as-grown material are associated with a mixture of Frank partials and perfect dislocations, while pits with fish-eye shapes have perfect dislocations with 12[01¯1] Burgers vector. The dislocations beneath skew pits are more complex as they have two different crystallographic directions, and are associated with a mixture of Shockley partials and perfect dislocations. Dislocation analysis of samples after thermal cycle annealing (TCA) shows that the majority of dislocations under the etch pits are short segments of perfect dislocations with 12[01¯1] Burgers vector while the remainder are Shockley partials. The absence of fish-eye shape pits in TCA samples suggests that they are associated with mobile dislocations that have reacted during annealing, causing the overall etch pit density to be reduced. Very large pits with a density ∼2×103 cm−2 are observed in as-grown and TCA samples. These defects thread from within the CdTe buffer layer into the upper regions of the HgCdTe layers. Their depth in as-grown material is so large that it is not possible to locate and identify the underlying defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5007-5019
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017


  • HgCdTe (211)
  • alternative substrates
  • dislocations
  • etch pits
  • two-beam bright-field imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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