Correlates of persistent smoking in bars subject to smokefree workplace policy

Roland S. Moore, Juliet P. Lee, Scott E. Martin, Michael Todd, Bong L. Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


This study's goal was to characterize physical and social environments of standalone bars associated with indoor smoking despite California's smokefree workplace law. In a random sample of 121 stand-alone bars in San Francisco, trained observers collected data on patrons, staff, neighborhood, indoor settings and smoking behaviors. Using bivariate (chi-square) and hierarchical linear modeling analyses, we identified four correlates of patrons' indoor smoking: 1) bars serving predominantly Asian or Irish patrons, 2) ashtrays, 3) bartender smoking, and 4) female bartenders. Public health officials charged with enforcement of smokefree bar policies may need to attend to social practices within bars, and heighten perceptions of consistent enforcement of smokefree workplace laws.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1341-1357
Number of pages17
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Bars
  • Smokefree workplace policy
  • Smoking behavior
  • Tobacco control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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