Convergence criteria establishment for 3D simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

A. Arvay, A. Ahmed, Xihong Peng, Arunachala Mada Kannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


A validated 3 dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics model of a single cell proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was used for investigating convergence criteria. The simulation study was carried out using the commercial PEMFC simulation module built in to ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 software package and compared with published experimental data. Convergence data up to 19,000 iterations were collected in order to establish expectations for convergence errors and differences in convergence rates for different boundary conditions. Species mass fluxes and current density were used to perform a dual verification of experimentally verifiable simulation predictions. The results of the simulation showed that convergence trends were consistent for different boundary conditions and that the solution trends asymptotically to a final value with species mass flux errors approaching to constant values. The data were used to establish convergence criteria for future 3D PEMFC simulations where residual monitoring alone is insufficient to ensure convergence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2482-2489
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2012


  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Convergence criteria
  • Modeling and simulation
  • Proton exchange membrane fuel cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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