Constructing Out-of-the-Money Longevity Hedges Using Parametric Mortality Indexes

Johnny Siu Hang Li, Jackie Li, Uditha Balasooriya, Kenneth Q. Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Proposed by Chan, Li, and Li, parametric mortality indexes (i.e., indexes created using the time-varying parameters in a suitable stochastic mortality model) can be used to develop tradable mortality-linked derivatives such as K-forwards. Compared to existing indexes such as the Life and Longevity Markets Association’s LifeMetrics, parametric mortality indexes are richer in information content, allowing the market to better concentrate liquidity. In this article, we further study this concept in several aspects. First, we consider options written on parametric mortality indexes. Such options enable hedgers to create out-of-the-money longevity hedges, which, compared to at-the-money-hedges created with q-/K-forwards, may better meet hedgers’ needs for protection against downside risk. Second, using the properties of the time series processes for the parametric mortality indexes, we derive analytical risk-neutral pricing formulas for K-forwards and options. In addition to convenience, the analytical pricing formulas remove the need for computationally intensive nested simulations that are entailed in, for example, the calculation of the hedging instruments’ values when a dynamic hedge is adjusted. Finally, we construct static and dynamic Greek hedging strategies using K-forwards and options, and demonstrate empirically the conditions under which an out-of-the-money hedge is more economically justifiable than an at-the-money one.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S341-S372
JournalNorth American Actuarial Journal
Issue numberS1
StatePublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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