Congestion and participation in outdoor recreation: A household production function approach

Timothy A. Deyak, V. Kerry Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


This paper examines the effects of congestion on recreational behavior within a household production model of consumer behavior. We assume that congestion affects the household's ability to produce constant quality recreational service flows and derive a reduced-form model for participation decisions in remote and developed camping. Empirical estimates of the effects of a congestion measure on the conditional probability of participation as well as on the level of participation are estimated for each activity by the type of trip using information from the 1972 National Recreation Survey. The findings suggest that congestion was most likely to affect the decision to participate and not the level once that decision had been made. While differences in these effects were observed across the activities studied, it is not clear how they should be interpreted since our congestion measure was a proxy variable likely to perform better for remote camping than developed camping.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-80
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Environmental Economics and Management
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1978

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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