Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Empathic Expressions: A Communication Perspective

Tara Suwinyattichaiporn, Laura K. Guerrero, Mark A. Generous

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This research focuses on developing and providing validation for Empathic Expressions Scale (EES). Three studies were conducted using different samples: (1) a qualitative study that uncovered empathic responses, (2) a quantitative study using exploratory factor analysis to determine subscales for the EES and then test for convergent with empathy quotient and compassionate communication, and divergent validity with narcissism and verbal aggressiveness, and (3) a quantitative study using confirmatory factor analysis to validate the structure of the EES. Results suggest a consistent structure for the EES, which includes five factors on: verbal affirmation, experience sharing, empathic voice, emotional reactivity, and empathic touch. These factors represent, both, verbal and nonverbal communication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)285-302
Number of pages18
JournalCommunication Studies
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021


  • Empathy
  • empathic communication
  • empathic communication scale
  • measure
  • measurement
  • scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication


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