Comparison of Electrical and Ultrasound Neurostimulation in Rat Motor Cortex

Daniel W. Gulick, Tao Li, Jeffrey Kleim, Bruce C. Towe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Ultrasound (US) is known to non-invasively stimulate and modulate brain function; however, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. This study tested US stimulation of rat motor cortex (100 W/cm2, 200 kHz) in combination with epidural cortical stimulation. US directly evoked hindlimb movement. This response occurred even with short US bursts (3 ms) and had short latency (10 ms) and long refractory (3 s) periods. Unexpectedly, the epidural cortical stimulation hindlimb response was not altered during the 3-s refractory period of the US hindlimb response. This finding suggests that the US refractory period is not a general suppression of motor cortex, but rather the recovery time of a US-specific mechanism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2824-2833
Number of pages10
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2017


  • Epidural cortical stimulation
  • Focused ultrasound
  • Neuromodulation
  • Neurostimulation
  • Therapeutic ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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