Comparing Traditional and Mixed Reality-Facilitated Apprenticeship Learning in a Wood-Frame Construction Lab

Wei Wu, Angel Sandoval, Venkata Gunji, Steven K. Ayer, Jeremi London, Logan Perry, Karan Patil, Kieren Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Mixed reality (MR) has the potential to accelerate construction workforce training and enhance college education. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence in the research literature on how effective MR may be in facilitating student apprenticeship learning in field construction activities compared to the traditional paper-based approach. This research designed an outdoor wood-frame construction lab with two parallel sessions involving paper drawings (the control) and MR mockups (the experiment) for conveying design information. The research team used video recordings and questionnaires to collect behavioral and perception data for comparative analysis. The results indicated that student teams in the two sessions exhibited comparable construction productivity. However, they demonstrated different behavioral patterns and time allocation for technology use and reported different apprenticeship learning gains. This research also identified and discussed potential contributing factors that limited the success of MR. The contribution of this work resides in presenting empirical evidence of the impact of using MR on student apprenticeship learning through outdoor construction activities. It also provides peer educational researchers with valuable insights on how to study pedagogical use of MR with consideration of potential challenges that are present in realistic construction environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number04020139
JournalJournal of Construction Engineering and Management
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Industrial relations
  • Strategy and Management


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