The primary objective of this research work is twofold: (i) determine the degradation rates of Siemens-Arco M55 modules exposed over 18 and 28 years in a hot-dry climate of Arizona and a temperate climate of California, and; (ii) identify the potential modes responsible for these degradation losses. The degradation rates were determined based on the I-V data obtained on exposed modules and on the corresponding control modules which were not exposed in the fields. The degradation modes responsible for these degradations were determined using several nondestructive tests and destructive tests performed on these control and exposed modules. The nondestructive tests included: current-voltage, visual inspection, cell-module quantum efficiency, and module level reflectance spectroscopy. The destructive tests included: transmittance spectroscopy of glass superstrates, and FTIR, DSC and TGA of encapsulant materials.