Co-liquefaction of mixed culture microalgal strains under sub-critical water conditions

Kodanda Phani Raj Dandamudi, Tapaswy Muppaneni, Nilusha Sudasinghe, Tanner Schaub, F. Omar Holguin, Peter Lammers, Shuguang Deng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


We report the co-liquefaction performance of unicellular, red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Galdieria sulphuraria under sub-critical water conditions within a stainless-steel batch reactor under different temperatures (150–300 °C), residence time (15–60 min), and Cyanidioschyzon merolae to Galdieria sulphuraria mass loading (0–100%). Individual liquefaction of C. merolae and G. sulphuraria at 300 °C achieved maximum biocrude oil yield of 18.9 and 14.0%, respectively. The yield of biocrude oil increased to 25.5%, suggesting a positive synergistic effect during the co-liquefaction of 80–20 mass loading of C. merolae to G. sulphuraria. The biocrude oils were analyzed by FT-ICR MS which showed that co-liquefaction did not significantly affect the distribution of product compounds compared to individual oils. The co-liquefied biocrude and biochar have a higher-heating-value of 35.28 and 7.96 MJ/kg. Ultimate and proximate analysis were performed on algae biomass, biocrude and biochar.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-137
Number of pages9
JournalBioresource Technology
StatePublished - 2017


  • Co-liquefaction
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction
  • Microalgae
  • Synergistic effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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