Chlorite geothermometry?-Contamination and apparent octahedral vacancies

Wei Teh Jiang, Donald R. Peacor, P R Buseck

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93 Scopus citations


The large contents of octahedral vacancies in published formulae of chlorite from hydrothermal systems and clastic sequences are shown to be largely caused by inclusion of other minerals. Verification is provided by analytical electron microscope (AEM) analyses of chlorite in pelitic rocks from the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec and the Gulf Coast, Texas. The Gaspé chlorite occurs as discrete crystals locally coexisting with corrensite, and the Gulf Coast chlorite is free of mixed layers other than local serpentine-like 7-Å layers. Unlike most electron microprobe analyses (EMPA), but like other AEM analyses, the reported chlorite formulae do not have significant octahedral vacancies, are not Si-rich and (Fe + Mg)-poor relative to classic metamorphic chlorite, and have nearly equal amounts of tetrahedral and octahedral Al. The studied chlorites and those in metabasites and clastic rocks that could be positively identified as containing no or minimal mixed layering or submicroscopic intergrowths have little or no Ca or alkalis. In contrast, EMPA of chlorite reported for other clastic sequences show variable amounts of Na + K + 2Ca that exhibit a poorly defined positive correlation with the proportion of octahedral vacancies. The EMPA of chlorite from the Salton Sea and Los Azufres geothermal fields that were suggested to contain temperature-dependent amounts of tetrahedral Al (and thus used as "chlorite geothermometers") show compositional characteristics similar to those reported for several saponite-chlorite transition series in metabasites. Continuous increases in octahedral occupancy and tetrahedral Al with increasing metamorphic grade are attributed to decreases in abundance of mixed layers or fine-grained intergrown minerals that commonly occur as a result of increasing crystal size and homogeneity in prograde sequences. Use of "chlorite geothermometry" based on the proportion of apparent octahedral vacancies or tetrahedral Al is therefore unwarranted and leads to inaccurate temperature estimates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)593-605
Number of pages13
JournalClays and Clay Minerals
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1994


  • Analytical electron microscopy
  • Chlorite
  • Chlorite geothermometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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