Characterization of incipient spall damage in shocked copper multicrystals

Pedro Peralta, S. DiGiacomo, S. Hashemian, S. N. Luo, D. Paisley, R. Dickerson, E. Loomis, D. Byler, K. J. Mcclellan, H. D'Armas

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59 Scopus citations


Correlations between spall damage and local microstructure were investigated in multicrystalline copper samples via impact tests conducted with laser-driven plates at low pressures (2-6 GPa). The copper samples had a large grain size as compared to the thickness, which was either 200 or 1000 μm, to isolate the effects of microstructure on the local response. Velocity interferometry was used to measure the bulk response of the free-surface velocity of the samples to monitor traditional spall tensile failure and to examine heterogeneities on the shock response due to microstructure variability from sample to sample. The shock pressure, dynamic yield strength and spall strength were determined from the measured velocity history via standard hydrodynamic approximations, while the effect of strength was explored via 1D hydrocode calculations. Electron Backscattering Diffraction, both in-plane and through-thickness, was used to relate crystallography to the presence of porosity around microstructural features such as grain boundaries and triple points. It was found that the dynamic yield strength measured from velocity histories in different samples correlated well with the crystallographic dependence reported for the dynamic yield strength in single crystals. Transgranular damage dominated in thin specimens with 230 μm grain size, where porosity appeared close to, but not exactly at, grain boundaries. However, a transition to dominant intergranular damage was observed as the grain size was reduced to 150 μm. Thick specimens (450 μm grain size) showed both modes, with intergranular damage found mostly where grains were smaller than average and the sites for preferred damage nucleation in these samples included grain boundaries and triple points. In particular, twin boundaries, especially tips of terminated twins, showed a large mismatch in surface displacements on the diagnostic surface as compared to the surrounding grains as well as a tendency for damage localization on the through-thickness sections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-413
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Damage Mechanics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2009


  • Crystallography
  • Damage nucleation
  • Grain size
  • Microstructure
  • Shock
  • Spall

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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