CHAPTER 2: Imaging Protein Dynamics by XFELs

John Spence

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The advances, opportunities and challenges during the first 7 years of structural biology using X-ray lasers are reviewed and their historical context provided. The main focus is on the achievements and prospects for imaging protein dynamics at near-atomic spatial resolution under native and controlled chemical conditions, and a summary of the many approaches to this aim is given. Radiation damage, comparisons of XFEL and synchrotron work, single particle diffraction, fast solution scattering, pump-probe studies on photosensitive proteins, mixing jets, caged molecules, pH jump and other reaction initiation methods, and the thermodynamics of molecular machines are all discussed, in addition to data analysis methods for all the instrumental modes. The ability of the XFEL to separate chemical reaction effects in dynamical imaging from radiation-induced effects (by minimizing these), while imaging at physiological temperatures and in the correct heat bath required for molecular machines is highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThermoelectric Materials and Devices
EditorsUwe Bergmann, Vittal K. Yachandra, Junko Yano
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9781782623236, 9781849731003
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameRSC Energy and Environment Series
ISSN (Print)2044-0774
ISSN (Electronic)2044-0782

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Energy


Dive into the research topics of 'CHAPTER 2: Imaging Protein Dynamics by XFELs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this