Cave life histories of non-Anthropogenic sediments help us understand associated archaeological contexts

Panagiotis Karkanas, Curtis Marean, Mira Bar-Matthews, Zenobia Jacobs, Eric Fisher, Kerstin Braun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Pinnacle Point (PP) near Mossel Bay in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, is known for a series of archaeological caves with important archaeological finds. Extensive excavations and studies in two of them (PP13B and PP5-6) have documented alternating periods of anthropogenic-dominated and geogenic-dominated sedimentation. A variety of caves do not bear evidence of anthropogenic remains. We have studied in detail the remnant deposits of three of them, Staircase Cave, Crevice Cave, and PP29, which have been formed under the same geologic and sedimentary conditions with those with anthropogenic contributions. Their remains are small and patchy but have extensive speleothem formations (as do most caves at PP) that were isotopically analyzed for paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. These caves also offer the opportunity to understand the purely geogenic signature of the PP locality and thus offer a geogenic baseline for the anthropogenic caves. Archaeologists normally focus only on sites with strong anthropogenic signals, but by building cave life histories we raise the bar (Goldberg 2008, p. 30) on our contextual knowledge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-289
Number of pages20
JournalQuaternary Research (United States)
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • OSL dating
  • Pleistocene
  • S. Africa
  • U-Th dating
  • aeolianite
  • anthoropogenic signature
  • cave life history
  • geogenic signature
  • sea level
  • speleothem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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