Calorimetry gives insight into the stability of nanophase materials. Using TiO2 as an example, the interplay of energetics of polymorphism, surface energy, and surface hydration is discussed. Oxide melt solution calorimetry, water adsorption calorimetry, and adiabatic heat capacity studies together show the following. The metastability of bulk polymorphs increases in the order rutile, brookite, anatase, while the surface energy increases in the opposite order. This leads to crossovers in phase stability at the nanoscale, which appears to be a general phenomenon. Hydration plays a major role in stabilizing nanoparticles and the first layers of water are tightly bound. There is little excess heat capacity and no significant excess vibrational entropy in nanophase rutile or anatase. Further applications of calorimetry to thin films, interfaces, multilayers, and sub-milligram samples are presented.
- Surface energy
- Titania polymorphs
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Materials Science(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry