The Republic of Serbia is a good example of a developing country with a water management system that has not been adequately transitioned to address the need of the new socio-economic paradigm. Consequently, more than 30% of generated potable water is lost in transportation, sewage collection and treatment significantly lag behind water supply and only 10% of the collected sewage receiving adequate treatment witch further burdens the already unsatisfying quality of water resources. In order to mitigate the upcoming effects of climate change and successfully manage the water resources for the next generations, the goal of this study is to identify and evaluate the existing barriers that hinder the development and implementation of an integrated national water resources management system. To achieve this goal, water resources management system in Serbia is examined through the prism of regulations, management, engineering, and education, which represent principal pillars of every national socio-economic system. The key findings and the outcomes of this study reveals that an in-depth analysis of existing situation and identification of barriers represent important initial steps in process of developing and implementing an integrated national water management system.