Before and after: Gender transitions, human capital, and workplace experiences

Kristen Schilt, Matthew Wiswall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations


We use the workplace experiences of transgender people - individuals who change their gender typically with hormone therapy and surgery - to provide new insights into the long-standing question of what role gender plays in shaping workplace outcomes. Using an original survey of male-to-female and female-to-male transgender people, we document the earnings and employment experiences of transgender people before and after their gender transitions. We find that while transgender people have the same human capital after their transitions, their workplace experiences often change radically. We estimate that average earnings for female-to-male transgender workers increase slightly following their gender transitions, while average earnings for male-to-female transgender workers fall by nearly 1/3. This finding is consistent with qualitative evidence that for many male-to-female workers, becoming a woman often brings a loss of authority, harassment, and termination, but that for many female-to-male workers, becoming a man often brings an increase in respect and authority. These findings challenge the omitted variables explanations for the gender pay gap and illustrate the often hidden and subtle processes that produce gender inequality in workplace outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number39
JournalB.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Gender
  • Labor market discrimination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)


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