Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Slag: Formation, Reaction, and Energy and Material Recovery

Zushu Li, Juncheng Li, Stephen Spooner, Sridhar Seetharaman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) slag, a product of hot metal element (e.g., Si, Mn, Fe, P) oxidation and flux (e.g. lime, dolomite) dissolution, plays a critical role in the production of high-quality crude steel, although its behavior inside the BOS vessel (formation and reaction with metal droplets and gas) is still not clear and its recycling has always been challenging. Herein, examples of BOS-slag-related research conducted by the present authors are introduced, in addition to a critical review of relevant research reported in the literature. This includes four important topics: 1) slag formation, i.e., dissolution of lime in the BOS slag; 2) in situ observation of high-temperature behavior of BOS slags; 3) transient phenomena in BOS slags due to metal droplet–slag–gas reactions; and 4) energy and material recovery from molten BOS slags. This article aims to provide state-of-the-art understanding and new research ideas on these research topics. An emphasis is placed on methods that seek to in situ probe the evolution of the slag and to document its physical and chemical changes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2100167
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • basic oxygen steelmaking slag
  • energy recovery
  • gas–slag–metal reaction
  • high-temperature behavior
  • lime dissolution
  • material recovery
  • transient phenomena

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Slag: Formation, Reaction, and Energy and Material Recovery'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this