Association among physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of musculoskeletal injury

Jennifer M. Hootman, Carol A. Macera, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Malissa Martin, Cheryl L. Addy, Steven N. Blair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

166 Scopus citations


To help public health practitioners promote physical activities with a low risk of injury, this study determined the relation among type and duration of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and musculoskeletal injury in a sample of adults enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Subjects included 4,034 men and 967 women who underwent a baseline physical examination between 1970 and 1985 and who returned a mailed follow-up survey in 1986. At baseline, a treadmill graded exercise test was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. At follow-up, subjects reported injuries and type and duration of physical activity in the preceding 12 months. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association among physical activity type and duration, cardiorespiratory fitness, and injury. The risk of sustaining an activity-related injury increased with higher duration of physical activity per week and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness may be a surrogate for unmeasured components of physical activity, such as exercise intensity. Among walkers, increasing duration of activity per week was not associated with an increased risk of injury. Results suggest that, for most adults, walking is a safe form of physical activity associated with a lower risk of injury than running or sport participation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-258
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Exercise
  • Logistic models
  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Physical fitness
  • Wounds and injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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