Assessing the validity of nicotine abstinence effects by self- and observer ratings under 'blinded' conditions

James C. Tate, Annette L. Stanton, Samuel B. Green, Joy M. Schmitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The authors examined the validity of nicotine abstinence effects by using both self- and observer ratings. Participants were 61 cigarette smokers undergoing 48 hr of smoking abstinence and 61 collateral observers. Ratings of abstinence effects were derived from both self- and observer reports. A 3-part analytic strategy was used. First, the authors conducted an analysis of variance to determine which negative mood states both observers and abstaining cigarette smokers report as abstinence effects. During abstinence, both groups reported significant increases in anxiety, anger, impatience, restlessness, and confusion, and a significant decrease in vigor. Both groups reported nonsignificant changes in fatigue and drowsiness. The authors compared the magnitude of self- and observer-reported abstinence effects and found no differences between these 2 sets of scores. The results of a multitrait multimethod analysis indicated modest convergent and poor discriminant validity for individual abstinence effects. Results converge with previous findings to support the validity of a general nicotine abstinence syndrome but highlight the need for refinement in the assessment of individual component symptoms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)330-335
Number of pages6
JournalExperimental and clinical psychopharmacology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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