Assembly and transport mechanism of tripartite drug efflux systems

Rajeev Misra, Vassiliy N. Bavro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Multidrug efflux (MDR) pumps remove a variety of compounds from the cell into the external environment. There are five different classes of MDR pumps in bacteria, and quite often a single bacterial species expresses multiple classes of pumps. Although under normal circumstances MDR pumps confer low-level intrinsic resistance to drugs, the presence of drugs and mutations in regulatory genes lead to high level expression of MDR pumps that can pose problems with therapeutic treatments. This review focuses on the resistance nodulation cell division (RND)-class of MDR pumps that assemble from three proteins. Significant recent advancement in structural aspects of the three pump components has shed new light on the mechanism by which the tripartite efflux pumps extrude drugs. This new information will be critical in developing inhibitors against MDR pumps to improve the potency of prescribed drugs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)817-825
Number of pages9
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2009


  • Drug resistance
  • Membrane fusion protein
  • Outer membrane protein factor
  • Proton/drug antiporter
  • RND-type multidrug efflux pump
  • Tripartite pump assembly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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