Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching

Katie L. Cramer, Jeremy B.C. Jackson, Christopher V. Angioletti, Jill Leonard-Pingel, Thomas P. Guilderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)561-567
Number of pages7
JournalEcology letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Acropora cervicornis
  • Bocas del Toro
  • Climate change
  • Corals
  • Dendostrea frons
  • Historical ecology
  • Land use
  • Molluscs
  • Shifting baselines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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