Analysis of long-term European temperature records: 1751-1995

Robert Balling, R. S. Vose, G. R. Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Monthly temperature records are assembled for 57 European stations, with some of the records extending nearly two and a half centuries. Our analyses reveal a statistically significant warming of approximately 0.5°C over the period 1751 to 1995. The period of most rapid warming in Europe occurred between 1890 and 1950, and there is quantitative evidence that some of the observed warming during this 60 yr period may be related to urbanization or other local effects; no warming was observed in the most recent half century. Urban effects or other local contaminations in the earliest records could not be quantified due to a dearth of reliable comparable data. The long-term warming in Europe has been confined to the low-sun months, and the coldest period since 1751 occurred near 1890.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-200
Number of pages8
JournalClimate Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 10 1999


  • Europe
  • Temperature records
  • Urban effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Environmental Science
  • Atmospheric Science


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