An iterative design process to develop a randomized feasibility study and inform recruitment of minority women after stillbirth

Jennifer Huberty, Jeni Green, Katherine J. Gold, Jenn Leiferman, Joanne Cacciatore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Yearly, approximately 25,000 US women experience stillbirth and African American women have a 2.2 fold increased risk of stillbirth compared with white women. After stillbirth, women are subject to a sevenfold increased risk of post-traumatic stress compared with women after a live-birth. This paper presents findings from phase one of a National Institutes of Health funded, two-phase feasibility study to examine an online yoga intervention to reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress in mothers after stillbirth. An iterative design was used to (1) inform the development of the online yoga intervention and (2) inform recruitment strategies to enroll minority women into phase two. Methods: Ten mothers (N = 5 stillbirth moms with no yoga experience, N = 5 nonstillbirth moms with yoga experience) participated in a series of online yoga videos (N = 30) and were assessed for self-compassion (SC) and emotional regulation (ER) before and after each video. An independent group of five minority women who had experienced stillbirth were interviewed about cultural barriers to recruitment and perceptions/opinions of yoga. A mean was calculated for SC and ER scores for each video at pre- and post-time points. The percent change of the mean difference between pre-post SC and ER scores were used to select videos for phase two. Videos with a negative change score or that had a 0% change on SC or ER were not used. A combination of deductive and inductive coding was used to organize the interview data, generate categories, and develop themes. Results: Five of the 30 tested yoga videos were not used. An additional 12 videos were developed, filmed, and used in the prescription for phase two. Topics from interview findings included perceived benefits/barriers of and interest in yoga, preferred yoga environment, suggested recruitment methods, content of recruitment material, and recommended incentives. Conclusions: Online yoga may be beneficial for improving emotional regulation and self-compassion, but further testing is needed. Additionally, minority women express interest in online yoga but suggest that researchers apply culturally specific strategies regarding methods, content of material, and incentives to recruit minority women into a study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number140
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalPilot and Feasibility Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 27 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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