An exploratory study of pain expression styles among blacks and whites

Robert Shuter, Judith Fitzgerald Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This study examines pain expression styles of black and white patients. Focusing on patient description of pain, the study explores the willingness of patients to disclose information about their pain and the quantity and quality of information patients use to describe their pain. The research was conducted in an urban hospital where nurse / patient interviews were recorded and subsequently analyzed by two raters who used a content analysis system developed for this study. It was found that blacks make fewer pain disclosures than whites, and they also convey less information about the intensity of their pain. Implications of the results for health care are offered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-290
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1982
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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