59 Scopus citations


We report an array of three microliter-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) connected in series. The three MFCs were integrated into a sandwich of two glass slides, incorporating two chambers of 50 μL volumetric capacity that were separated by a cation exchange membrane (CEM). Each anolyte/catholyte chamber was defined by 500-μm thick PTEE (polytetrafluoroethylene) gaskets. The MFCs contained a Geobacter-enriched mixed bacterial culture and ferricyanide, which were independently driven into anolyte/catholyte chambers, respectively. The MFC array produced 100 μW total power (33 μW/cm 2 or 667 μW/cm 3) and 1.8 V output voltage, which are approximately 10 times and 4.5 times higher, respectively, than the maximum values of previously reported microliter-sized MFCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-15
Number of pages6
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012


  • Microbial fuel cells
  • Microliter-sized
  • Power density
  • Series connection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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