AHPS2: An optimizer using adaptive heterogeneous particle swarms

Xianghua Chu, Mengqi Hu, Teresa Wu, Jeffery D. Weir, Qiang Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has suffered from premature convergence and lacked diversity for complex problems since its inception. An emerging advancement in PSO is multi-swarm PSO (MS-PSO) which is designed to increase the diversity of swarms. However, most MS-PSOs were developed for particular problems so their search capability on diverse landscapes is still less than satisfactory. Moreover, research on MS-PSO has so far treated the sub-swarms as cooperative groups with minimum competition (if not none). In addition, the size of each sub-swarm is set to be fixed which may encounter excessive computational cost. To address these issues, a novel optimizer using Adaptive Heterogeneous Particle SwarmS (AHPS2) is developed in this research. In AHPS2, multiple heterogeneous swarms, each consisting of a group of homogenous particles having similar learning strategy, are introduced. Two complementary search techniques, comprehensive learning and a subgradient method, are studied. To best take advantage of the heterogeneous learning strategies, an adaptive competition strategy is proposed so the size of each swarm can be dynamically adjusted based on its group performance. The analyses of the swarm heterogeneity and the competition models are presented to validate the effectiveness. Furthermore, comparisons between AHPS2 and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into three categories: 36 regular benchmark functions (30-dimensional), 20 large-scale benchmark functions (1000-dimensional) and 3 real-world problems. Experimental results show that AHPS2 displays a better or comparable performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26-52
Number of pages27
JournalInformation Sciences
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014


  • Adaptive competition strategy
  • Heterogeneous learning
  • Heterogeneous swarm
  • Multiple swarm
  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Search behavior analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Information Systems and Management
  • Artificial Intelligence


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