Adults’ Online and Offline Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Experiences

Janneke M. Schokkenbroek, Joris Van Ouytsel, Wim Hardyns, Koen Ponnet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Digital media offer ample possibilities for individuals to control and monitor their dating or romantic partner and to make hurtful comments. Although online psychological intimate partner violence has received increased research attention over the past few years, much remains unknown about its nature and its association with offline psychological intimate partner violence, especially among the adult population. Previous research remains inconclusive regarding the gendered nature of online intimate partner violence, and differences among various age groups have yet to be examined. The present study is intended to address these gaps in the literature by assessing the co-occurrence of psychological intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration, and the overlap between offline and online forms thereof. We conducted a large-scale survey study among a representative sample of 1,587 adults between the ages of 18 and 94 (M = 48.1, SD = 18.6), of which 1,144 (Mage = 47.7 years, 51.3% female) were in relationships at the time of data collection (2019). Our study findings indicate that experiences of online and offline psychological intimate partner violence tend to co-occur, as do victimization and perpetration experiences. Furthermore, we found that men were more often victims of both online and offline psychological partner violence than women, and women were more often perpetrators of both forms of psychological intimate partner violence than men. Younger age groups reported more victimization and perpetration of online and offline psychological intimate partner violence than older respondents. The results of our study underscore the need for age-appropriate intimate partner violence prevention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)NP14656-NP14671
JournalJournal of interpersonal violence
Issue number15-16
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • cyber dating abuse
  • intimate partner violence
  • psychological intimate partner violence
  • sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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