Ache at the settlement: Contrasts between farming and foraging

Kristen Hawkes, Hillard Kaplan, Kim Hill, Ana Magdalena Hurtado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


The Northern Ache comprise a small continuously interacting population with a shared community history. Full-time hunter-gatherers until recently, they now divide their time between mobile foraging and settled farming. Here we describe adult time allocation at the settlement and contrast it with our previous descriptions of time allocation during foraging periods. We report that at the settlement men and women work fewer hours each day than they do in the forest, people eat less, women do more work apart from their children, and men invest more in direct parental care. Explanations for differences in time allocation between foragers and farmers should apply to the variation in work effort, production goals, division of labor, and parenting strategies reported here, and conversely.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-161
Number of pages29
JournalHuman Ecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1987
Externally publishedYes


  • sexual strategies
  • subsistence changes
  • time allocation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Anthropology
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science


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