A two-locus neutrality test: Applications to humans, E. coli and lodgepole pine

P. W. Hedrick, G. Thomson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


The expected disequilibrium between two loci with k alleles at one locus and l alleles at the other is given for a sample of size n drawn from a population under neutrality equilibrium. Three different measures of disequilibrium with 95% intervals are tabulated for combinations of n, k, l and 4Nc, where N is the effective population size and c is the amount of recombination between the loci. The extent and pattern of disequilibrium are strongly dependent upon 4Nc and are somewhat dependent on n, k and l. The 95% intervals are large, particularly for low numbers of alleles and low values of 4Nc. As examples, observed disequilibrium from histocompatibility loci in humans (HLA) and electrophoretic data in E. coli and lodgepole pine were compared to these theoretical values. Using information about recombination rates, the HLA data showed more disequilibrium than neutrality expectations, whereas electrophoretic data from E. coli and lodgepole pine had somewhat less disequilibrium than neutrality expectations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-156
Number of pages22
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1986
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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