A systematic literature review of school climate in low and middle income countries

Kristine E. Larson, Amanda J. Nguyen, Mercedes Gabriela Orozco Solis, Alexandra Humphreys, Catherine P. Bradshaw, Sarah Lindstrom Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Research on school climate has largely been conducted in high-income countries, with less focus on school climate in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). As such, there is limited understanding of how school climate may be associated with students’ socio-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes in these contexts. Five reviewers completed a two-stage review process; 35 articles met inclusion criteria for review. Results indicated a lack of consensus in the research around what constitutes or how to measure school climate, but consistent associations with socio-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes were found. Although findings suggested that school climate is associated with positive student outcomes in LMICs, additional work is needed to increase the rigor of school climate research and its impact in these settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101606
JournalInternational Journal of Educational Research
StatePublished - 2020


  • Academic outcomes
  • Behavior outcomes
  • Low-and middle-income countries (LMICs)
  • School climate
  • Socio-emotional
  • Student outcomes
  • Systematic literature review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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