A spiking-resistant all-Al rear-junction n-type Si solar cell

Laidong Wang, Wen Cheng Sun, Clarence J. Tracy, Meng Tao, Yunyu Liu, Xusheng Wang, Guoqiang Xing

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


In this paper we report a spiking-resistant all-Al rear junction n-type monocrystalline Si solar cell with an efficiency of 18%. This 1×1 inch2 cell is fabricated by ionic liquid based electroplating of Al as the front electrode on an n-type Si solar cell with screen-printed Al as the rear junction. Partially-processed cells are prepared in an industrial R&D line of Canadian Solar. The cells are patterned by photolithography to open the front contact. A seed layer of Ni is deposited by sputtering to assist Al electroplating. A finished cell is annealed at different temperatures from 150-450°C to evaluate the effect of temperature on its performance. Compared to a p-type all-Al cell we reported before, the n-type all-Al cell is more resistant to high temperature Al spiking. Further comparison between this cell which has an electroplated Al front electrode and control cells with a screen-printed Ag front electrode demonstrates the feasibility of replacing Ag with electroplated Al as the front electrode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781509027248
StatePublished - Nov 18 2016
Event43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016 - Portland, United States
Duration: Jun 5 2016Jun 10 2016


Other43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • aluminum electroplating
  • aluminum spiking
  • back emitter
  • back junction
  • shunting
  • silicon solar cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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