A probability sample for monitoring the HIV-infected population in care in the U.S. and in selected states

Martin R. Frankel, A. D. McNaghten, Martin F. Shapiro, Patrick S. Sullivan, Sandra H. Berry, Christopher H. Johnson, Elaine W. Flagg, Sally Morton, Samuel A. Bozzette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Epidemiologic and clinical changes in the HIV epidemic over time have presented a challenge to public health surveillance to monitor behavioral and clinical factors that affect disease progression and HIV transmission. The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is a supplemental surveillance project designed to provide representative, population-based data on clinical status, care, outcomes, and behaviors of HIV-infected persons receiving care at the national level. We describe a three-stage probability sampling method that provides both nationally and state-level representative estimates. In stage-I, 20 states, which included 6 separately funded cities/counties, were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. PPS sampling was also used in stage-II to select facilities for participation in each of the 26 funded areas. In stage-III, patients were randomly selected from sampled facilities in a manner that maximized the possibility of having overall equal selection probabilities for every patient in the state or city/county. The sampling methods for MMP could be adapted to other research projects at national or sub-national levels to monitor populations of interest or evaluate outcomes and care for a range of specific diseases or conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-76
Number of pages10
JournalOpen AIDS Journal
Issue numberSPEC.ISSUE 1
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV
  • Representative
  • Sampling
  • Surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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