Portable electronic devices are predominantly powered by lithium ion batteries in which the electrolyte is a liquid or gel of lithium salts dissolved in molecular solvents. There have been many attempts to replace the flammable liquid component of the electrolyte by alternative alkali metal transporting media, such as superionic crystals, alkali-conducting glassy solids, ionic liquids, salt-in-molecular plastic crystal solvent, and salt-in-ionic plastic crystal solvents. Except for the first two of the above, which have their own problems, all the above have the disadvantage that the alkali cation is the least mobile of the ionic species due to its high charge/radius ratio. Here, some new, silylsulfate-based are introduced. Members of the class of lithium ion conductor in which the alkali ion is the only cationic species present, and the salt itself is a plastic crystal, a solid in which the anion centers of mass are ordered, but the anion orientations are disordered and dynamic (best example NaCB9H10, see text). It is shown that depending on the nature of the anion, the conductivity may be within a factor of two of the standard liquid carbonate electrolyte. The soft, spreadable electrolyte, impregnated in Celgard separators, supports truly reversible Li insertion into the LiCoO2 cathode.
- impregnable solid electrolytes
- lithium ion plastic crystal
- reversible lithium intercalation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)