A meta-analysis of infant outcomes after breech delivery

Deidre Spelliscy Gifford, Sally C. Morton, Mary Fiske, Katherine Kahn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


Objective: To estimate the risks of neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with a trial of labor and with elective cesarean for the term breech infant. Data Sources: Using the terms "breech," "malpresentation," and "external cephalic version," we used the MEDLINE and Health Planning and Administration data bases to search the English-language literature from January 1981 to June 1993. The search was supplemented with a review of the reference lists of key articles and text chapters. Methods of Study Selection: We included randomized trials or cohort studies that specified selection criteria for a vaginal delivery, provided detailed outcome data, and allowed for analysis by intended mode of delivery. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. We pooled the weighted results from these studies to estimate the risks of birth injuries and perinatal death, and the risk differences between trial of labor and no trial of labor groups. The pooled risk for any injury was 1.00% after a trial of labor and 0.09% after elective cesarean. For any injury or death, the risk was 1.23% after a trial of labor and 0.09% after elective cesarean. The risk differences for injury and injury or death were 0.89 and 1.10%, respectively. These are significantly different from zero, suggesting an increased risk of injury and injury or death after a trial of labor. Conclusion: When management decisions are made, the potential increased risk of neonatal morbidity after a trial of labor should be considered along with the increased maternal risk from cesarean delivery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1047-1054
Number of pages8
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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