A Machine Learning-Based Method for Identifying Critical Distance Relays for Transient Stability Studies

Ramin Vakili, Mojdeh Khorsand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Protective relays play a crucial role in defining the dynamic responses of power systems during and after faults. Therefore, modeling protective relays in stability studies is crucial for enhancing the accuracy of these studies. Modeling all the relays in a bulk power system is a challenging task due to the limitations of stability software and the difficulties of keeping track of the changes in the setting information of these relays. Distance relays are one of the most important protective relays that are not properly modeled in current practices of stability studies. Hence, using the Random Forest algorithm, a fast machine learning-based method is developed in this paper that identifies the distance relays required to be modeled in stability studies of a contingency, referred to as critical distance relays (CDRs). GE positive sequence load flow analysis (PSLF) software is used to perform stability studies. The method is tested using 2018 summer peak load data of Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) for various system conditions. The results illustrate the great performance of the method in identifying the CDRs. They also show that to conduct accurate stability studies, only modeling the CDRs suffices, and there is no need for modeling all the distance relays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8841
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • distance relays
  • identifying critical protective relays
  • modeling protective relays in stability studies
  • power system protection
  • random forest classifier
  • relay misoperation
  • transient stability study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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