A longitudinal investigation of Aβ, anxiety, depression, and mild cognitive impairment

Anna Pink, Janina Krell-Roesch, Jeremy A. Syrjanen, Maria Vassilaki, Val J. Lowe, Prashanthi Vemuri, Gorazd B. Stokin, Teresa J. Christianson, Walter K. Kremers, Clifford R. Jack, David S. Knopman, Ronald C. Petersen, Yonas E. Geda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Introduction: We investigated the longitudinal relationship between cortical amyloid deposition, anxiety, and depression and the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We followed 1440 community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired individuals aged ≥ 50 years for a median of 5.5 years. Clinical anxiety and depression were assessed using Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI, BDI-II). Cortical amyloid beta (Aβ) was measured by Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET) and elevated deposition (PiB+) was defined as standardized uptake value ratio ≥ 1.48. We calculated Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time scale, adjusted for sex, education, and medical comorbidity. Results: Cortical Aβ deposition (PiB+) independent of anxiety (BAI ≥ 10) or depression (BDI-II ≥ 13) increased the risk of MCI. There was a significant additive interaction between PiB+ and anxiety (joint effect hazard ratio 6.77; 95% confidence interval 3.58–12.79; P =.031) that is, being PiB+ and having anxiety further amplified the risk of MCI. Discussion: Anxiety modified the association between PiB+ and incident MCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1824-1831
Number of pages8
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography
  • amyloid imaging
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • mild cognitive impairment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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