A direct comparison of the effects of imagery and action observation on hitting performance

Brooke Neuman, Rob Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Novice and experienced baseball players participated in one of two mental preparation conditions (observation, imagery) or a control group. Each participant completed three directional hitting tasks: pull hit, opposite-field hit, and sacrifice fly. Number of hits was significantly higher for both observation and imagery than for the control group. Experienced players demonstrated significantly larger effects of both preparation techniques. The effects of experience and preparation technique also varied significantly with task difficulty. These effects were significantly mediated by changes in batting kinematics. Imagery and action observation can improve hitting ability with the optimal method depending on skill-level and task difficulty.

Original languageFrench
Pages (from-to)11-21
Number of pages11
JournalMovement and Sports Sciences - Science et Motricite
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Imagery
  • Interception
  • Kinematics
  • Motor control
  • Observational learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Physiology (medical)

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