A cross‐national study of cognitive style among managers and technicians

Leopold W. Gruenfeld, Ann E. MacEachron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


This study explains differences among managers and technicians in twenty‐two non‐western countries in terms of the field articulation cognitive style. A review of the behavioral referents of the field articulate cognitive style suggested that this variable is appropriately related to occupational interests and tasks and adaptability to industrial technique. Previous studies also suggested the hypothesis that socioeconomic status variables are related to both cognitive style and national or cultural differences. This hypothesis was confirmed using both the EFT and the RFT as measures of field articulation in a group of three hundred twenty‐nine managers and technicians representing twenty‐two non‐western developing countries. Several explanations of these findings are discussed in terms of functional requirements for adult roles in a society and in terms of the relative affluence or level of poverty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-55
Number of pages29
JournalInternational Journal of Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1975
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology(all)


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