A conceptual analysis of the impact of travel demand management on private car use

Tommy Gärling, Daniel Eek, Peter Loukopoulos, Satoshi Fujii, Olof Johansson-Stenman, Ryuichi Kitamura, Ram Pendyala, Bertil Vilhelmson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

163 Scopus citations


A conceptual framework is presented that may be utilized when analyzing changes in household travel arising from the range of potential measures available to policy makers. The proposed framework draws on goal setting theory in order to understand how travel is influenced by the impact various travel demand management (TDM) measures have on time, cost, and convenience of travel options. Travel is understood from a perspective assuming that it is controlled by negative feedback functioning to minimize deviations from goals nested at different levels. The conceptual framework, with its basis in goal setting and control theories, is then applied to understanding strategic and operational choice related to travel as well as habitual travel. Finally, the proposed conceptual framework is used to highlight and focus attention on key research issues that ought to be addressed if our understanding of the impact of TDM measures on household travel, and private car use in particular, is to improve.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-70
Number of pages12
JournalTransport Policy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Behavioral approach
  • Car use
  • Household travel
  • Travel demand management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Law
  • Transportation


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