0.36mW, 52Mbps True Random Number Generator Based on a Stochastic Delta-Sigma Modulator

Sanjeev Tannirkulam Chandrasekaran, Vinay Elkoori Ghantala Karnam, Arindam Sanyal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


This work presents a true random number generator (TRNG) based on a stochastic delta-sigma modulator (DSM) with ring oscillator (RO) integrators. The TRNG leverages noise and jitter in the ROs as entropy source. A multi-bit non-return-to-zero (NRZ) digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in the feedback path ensures DSM noise dominates input swing seen by the front-end integrators. Hence, the DSM can concurrently operate as an ADC and TRNG. A 65nm prototype achieves Shannon entropy >0.999998 with lower-bound min-entropy >0.995 at 52Mbps throughput while passing all NIST tests across multiple chips and voltage/temperature corners without needing calibration. The combined power consumption of ADC and TRNG is 0.36mW which is the lowest among state-of-the-art RO TRNGs. Low power consumption, high entropy, and concurrent operation of the TRNG as an ADC are principal contributions of this work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters
StateAccepted/In press - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Entropy
  • Generators
  • Jitter
  • NIST
  • Power supplies
  • Semiconductor device measurement
  • Voltage-controlled oscillators
  • analog-to-digital converter
  • delta-sigma.
  • true random number generator
  • voltage-controlled oscillator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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