0°: A sprimer on geographic representation

Wade Bishop, Anthony Grubesic

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The purpose of this chapter is to provide a technically accessible overview of geographic representation, geodesy, projections, and georeferencing. All four of these domains function as key building blocks for better understanding the important details associated with calculating distance, direction, and elevation, as well as locating features on the earth’s surface and transforming these features into positions on a flat map (or screen) through the use of projections. More importantly, as digital representations of the earth’s surface continue to grow in popularity and use, it is also important to provide a primer on how these data are conceptualized and handled in an electronic environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSpringer Geography
Number of pages26
StatePublished - 2016

Publication series

NameSpringer Geography
ISSN (Print)2194-315X
ISSN (Electronic)2194-3168


  • Geographic information system
  • Geographic representation
  • North pole
  • Universal transverse mercator
  • Zone improvement plan code

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Urban Studies
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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