Workplace heat exposure, health protection, and economic impacts: A case study in Canada

Jennifer Vanos, Daniel J. Vecellio, Tord Kjellstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Background: Occupational heat exposure is a serious concern for worker health, productivity, and the economy. Few studies in North America assess how on-site wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) levels and guidelines are applied in practice. Methods: We assessed the use of a WBGT sensor for localized summertime heat exposures experienced by outdoor laborers at an industrial worksite in Ontario, Canada during the warm season (May-October) from 2012 to 2018 inclusive. We further examined informed decision making, approximated workers’ predicted heat strain (sweat loss, core temperature), and estimated potential financial loss (via hourly wages) due to decreased work allowance in the heat. Results: Significantly higher worksite WBGT levels occured compared with regional levels estimated at the airport, with an upward trend in heat warnings over the 7 years and expansion of warnings into the fall season. The maximum WBGT during warnings related strongly to predicted hourly sweat loss. On average, 22 hours per worker were lost each summer (~1% of annual work hours) as a result of taking breaks or stopping due to heat. This amount of time corresponded to an average individual loss of C$1100 Canadian dollars (~C$220,000 combined for ~200 workers) to workers or the company. The additional losses for an enterprise due to reduced product output were not estimated. Conclusions: Worksite observations and actions at the microscale are essential for improving the estimates of health and economic costs of extreme heat to enterprises and society. Providing worksite heat metrics to the employees aids in appropriate decision making and health protection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1024-1037
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019


  • economic impact
  • extreme heat
  • health
  • outdoor workers
  • wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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