WDM EPONs not only allow for cautious pay-as-you-grow upgrades of single-channel TDM EPONs but also avoid linearly increasing polling cycle times for an increasing number of ONUs. In this article, we first provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art of TDM EPONs and recently reported dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, including decentralized scheduling schemes. After reviewing previous work on WDM EPONs, we address the requirements of WDM upgraded EPONs and make recommendations on an evolutionary WDM upgrade at the architecture, protocol, and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm levels, taking backward compatibility with MPCP and future-proofness against arbitrary WDM ONU structures into account. We describe and compare online and offline scheduling paradigms for WDM EPONs. Our simulation results indicate that online scheduling can achieve lower delays, especially at high loads. We outline areas of future research on WDM EPONs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering